John Adam and Lydia Ann Shambaugh Mohler

John Adam Mohler was born March 9, 1810 in Washington County, Pennsylvania. There is some information indicating his parents, John Adam and Anney Irich Mohler, were also born in this beautiful part of western Pennsylvania. John, Sr. was a Lutheran minister and a farmer.

Sometime before 1820, John Adam, Sr. and his family migrated to Ashland County, Ohio. Though it was quite a long journey, history tells us that his family was among many Pennsylvanians who moved to Ashland County in north central Ohio. This was an area of lakes and forests on the dividing bridge, or watershed, between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. Eventually, farming became the primary industry. John, Sr. was both a minister and a farmer, and a land record dated December 1, 1830 showed he purchased 80 acres of land, transacted April 24, 1820.

As fate would have it, there was another family living in Ashland County which had migrated to Ohio from Pennsylvania whose daughter met and married John Adam Mohler, Jr. The young woman was Lydia Ann Shambaugh and her parents were John Philip and Catherine Walter Shambaugh. She was born May 28, 1816 in Union County, Pennsylvania.

We do not know when or where they met, but after a courtship, John and Lydia married on June 9, 1835 in Richland County, Ohio which is adjacent to Ashland County.

Marriage record for John Adam Mohler and Lydia Ann Shambaugh.
Marriage record for John Adam Mohler and Lydia Ann Shambaugh.

By the time the 1850 United States Federal Census was taken, John and Lydia lived in Hanover, Ashland County, Ohio. In the fifteen years since their marriage, their family had grown by leaps and bounds. As unbelievable as it may seem, they had nine children – Julia Ann (14), Levi (13), Phoebe (12), William Henry (10), George Washington (8), Catherine Clara (6), Jeremiah (4), Mary Ann (2) and John Wesley (1). John Adam was farming.

Sometime between 1850 and 1860, the Mohler family moved to Spring Grove, Warren County in eastern Illinois. I do not know the reasons for their migration but traveling from north central Ohio would not have been an easy journey, particularly with such a large family. By the time they reached Warren County, the population had begun to grow, two reasons being the arrival of the railroad and the proximity to the Mississippi River. Evidently, John Adam was drawn to this area seeking a better life for his family.

The 1860 United States Federal Census reveals the family had continued to grow during the intervening years. Children listed on this census are: Levi (21), William Henry (19), George Washington (17), Jeremiah (13), John Wesley (12), Thomas Jefferson (7), Franklin Pierce (5), Isaac Newton (4), Oliver Cromwell (9/12), Catherine (16) and Mary Ann (13). Both Julia Ann and Phoebe had married. We know that John and Lydia had one other son, Martin Luther, who died shortly after his birth in 1857. Levi’s wife, Martha, and daughter, Roda, are also included in this census record.

No death record or burial location has been found for Lydia, but I think she died sometime between 1860 and 1866, probably in Warren County, Illinois. She would have been in her late 40’s and had given birth to fourteen children.

The lives of John Mohler and his children must have been greatly disrupted by Lydia’s death, and at the same time this occurred, the country became engaged in war. The American Civil War broke out in 1861, and Illinois was one of the twenty-five states that was a part of the Union. Like other families in this place and time, the Mohler’s experienced the agonies of this tragic war. Though John was not in the military, his son Levi was enlisted.

No major battles were fought in Illinois, but it was a primary source of troops for the Union army and of military supplies, food, and clothing. Also, any history buff knows about the two Illinois men who became prominent in the politics and the army during this time – Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant.

Following Lydia’s death, John Adam Mohler married Ida Jane Bellis Voorhees, in about 1866. Like John, she was widowed and had two sons, James and George, and a daughter, Sadie (Sallie) Voorhees. Between 1867 and 1876, they had three more children, Alexander Hamilton, Ida May Bell and Charles Edwin. Though I was not able to find them on the 1870 census, when the 1880 United States Federal Census was taken Oliver, Sadie, Alexander, Ida and Edwin were listed. The family was located in Logan, Peoria County, Illinois.

John Adam Mohler died October 25, 1894 at home in Hamiliton County, Illinois and was buried in the Oakwood Cemetery, Montebello Township, Hancock, Illinois. His obituary was found in Carthage Gazette, November 2, 1894.

 

A Good Man Gone

John Adam Mohler, native of Washington County, PA, and the son of a Lutheran minister, died near Hamilton, Ill., on last Thursday, aged 84 years, 7 months and 16 days. He has lived in Ashland Co., Ohio, Warren, Fulton, and Peoria counties, Ill. The last six years, he lived near Hamilton. He was married in 1835 to Miss Lydia Shambaugh by whom he had 14 children. One died in infancy, another at the battle of Fort Donnelson, and two daughters after their marriage. Again he was married to Mrs. Ida J. Voorhees, of Peoria county, who bore him 3 children, all of whom, with their mother, are living. Thus he has 13 children living.

In early life he united with the Lutheran church: later with the U.V. and finally, with the Congregational church of Hamilton.

His remains were interred in the Oakwood cemetery on Sabbath morning, funeral services being conducted by Revs. J.H. Rose, of Hamilton, and H.M. Brewer, of this city.

 

John Adam’s obituary mentions he had lived near Hamilton, Illinois the last six years of his life. Both a land plat and the Petition for Letters of Administration by his widow Ida Mohler following his death show he owned land in near Hamilton, Hancock County, Illinois.

The death of a son in the Battle of Fort Donelson near the Tennessee/Kentucky border February 11-16, 1862 is also mentioned in John’s obituary. I have not been able to determine which of his sons this might have been. Levi was enlisted in the military during the Civil War, but I found information of his death June 14, 1909.

In my research of John Adam and Lydia Shambaugh Mohler, two things greatly impressed me – the number of children and the names of their sons. In their twenty-four years of marriage, John and Lydia had fourteen children. John and his second wife, Ida, had three more children. With the exception of Martin Luther, all lived to adulthood. Naming their sons after historical figures appears a phenomenon and begs the questions – why did they do it and how much did they know about these men in history?

When reading accounts of lives of pioneers during 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States, I am always astounded by their abilities to confront many difficult circumstances of life – physical, emotional and cultural. Their pioneering spirit drove them to move west in crude wagons over rough roadways. They bought and farmed land to establish a means of livelihood, settling where they could set up households in largely undeveloped areas. Like others, John and Lydia carried out the daily tasks of feeding and clothing their families while participating in community life with other dauntless folks.

I am particularly impressed by the strength of women during those times. Many, like Lydia and Ida, gave birth to numbers of children when medical attention was primitive by today’s standards. The manner in which they attended to the daily, and sometimes tedious, tasks of cooking, sewing, and nurturing of their families in very hard, rustic conditions is unbelievable to us. Paying tribute to these courageous souls seems the right thing to do.

Grave marker for John Adam Mohler.
Grave marker for John Adam Mohler.

                                                 Sources

Ancestry.com. 1850 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.

Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.

Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010.

Ancestry.com. U.S. General Land Office Records, 1796-1907 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.

Carthage Gazette, obituary for John Adam Mohler, November 2, 1894.

Hancock County, Illinois, Petition for Letters of Administration, Estate of John A. Mohler, 24 Nov 1894.

“Historical Sketch of Ashland County,”  http://www.ashlandcounty.org/commissioners/files/history.pdf

Richland County, marriage record, Richland County Clerk’s Office, Mansfield, Ohio.

“Warren County Illinois History,”  http://www.warrencountyil.com/communities/kirkwood/history

 Lucy Ann Nance Croft, 2015
John A. & Lydia Mohler FGS John Adam & Lydia Mohler Family Group Sheet (click link)
John A. & Ida Mohler FGS John Adam & Ida Mohler Family Group Sheet (click link)

 

Thomas Jefferson Mohler

Thomas Jefferson and Mary Emma Bowton Mohler
Thomas Jefferson and Mary Emma Bowton Mohler

The Mohler family in America was made up of some folks with very distinguished names, one being our ancestor Thomas Jefferson Mohler. He was born April 14, 1851 in Hanover Township, Ashland County, Ohio and was the tenth child of John Adam and Lydia Ann Mohler. Ashland County, in the north central part of Ohio, is on the dividing ridge, or watershed, between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. As you might expect, the primary industry for the settlers in this part of the country was agriculture, with corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, hay and maple sugar being the major crops.

When the 1860 United States Federal Census was enumerated the Mohler family had moved to Spring Grove, Warren County, Illinois and had increased in size with the addition of three more children. Records indicate that they also had another son, Martin Luther, who either died at birth or the same year he was born. The 1860 census records the following fifteen members of the John Mohler household: John A. Mohler, Lydia, Levi, Martha J., Roda A., Wm. H., Geo. W., Jeremiah, John, Thos., J., Franklin P., Isaac N., Oliver, Catharine and Mary. Martha was Levi’s wife and their child was Roda.

Note the complete names the Mohler’s gave their sons – George Washington, Jeremiah, John Wesley, Thomas Jefferson, Franklin Pierce, Isaac Newton, Martin Luther, and Oliver Cromwell. Naming their sons after historical figures appears a phenomenon and begs the questions – why did they do it and how much did they know about these men in history?

The American Civil War broke out in 1861 and Illinois was one of the twenty-five states that was a part of the Union. Like other families in this place and time, the Mohler’s must have experienced the agonies of this tragic war. Thomas was small child, but it is likely his older brothers were enlisted. I found enlistment records for several men in Warren County, Illinois by the same names, but more research would be required to verify that the records match Thomas’ brothers.

Though no major battles were fought in Illinois, it was a primary source of troops for the Union army and of military supplies, food, and clothing. Also, any history buff knows about the two Illinois men who became prominent in the politics and the army during this time – Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant.

Unfortunately I have not found the Mohler family on the 1870 United States Federal Census so I have no information about their location, but sometime after the Civil War Thomas met his future wife, Mary Emma Bowton. Evidently her family lived in Fulton County, Illinois which is adjacent to Warren County (southwest). They married on January 27, 1876. Mary was the daughter of William and Rebecca Bowton.

Thomas and Mary remained in Fulton County, Illinois and set up their household on a farm. On January 11, 1877 they had their first child, Flora Rebecca. About two years later on October 11, 1879 a son, Lorain Ellsworth arrived. This family of four was recorded on the 1880 United States Federal Census. On this census record we discover that Mary’s father was from England and her mother from Illinois.

THOMAS MOHLER FAMILY MOVES TO NEBRASKA

Since there is no longer an 1890 United States Federal Census, we leap to the 1900 United States Federal Census to find our next record for Thomas Mohler and his family. In those intervening twenty years they had moved west and were found in York County, Nebraska. Their two oldest children were no longer living with them but their family had definitely grown. Six children are recorded – Charles, Lena, Ethel, Darrel (Dara), David and Ewort (Ewart). We know another son named William was born in 1885 when they were in Illinois, but he was not residing with them. The last three children were born in Nebraska, so this meant they moved to York County sometime between 1891 and 1896. The Thomas and Mary’s family was a large by any standard of measurement.

Thomas and Mary Mohler with children.
Thomas and Mary Mohler with children.

An interesting note – the enumerator’s handwriting was not very decipherable, but it appears Thomas gave his occupation as “Clergyman.” I thought this might be the enumerator’s error or my inability to read the handwriting. However, one of the Mohler’s grandsons named Wes Mohler gave us some interesting information about this.

 You were correct in listing Thomas Jefferson as “Clergyman.” He was a self-educated pastor/preacher and VERY involved with the United Brethren (In Christ) Church (Denomination). You are probably aware of this, but the United Brethren and Evangelical Denominations merged and were called the Evangelical United Brethren Church (Denomination.) In 1968 (?) the EUB merged with the Methodist Church (Denomination) and is today called The UNITED Methodist Church (Denomination.) Thomas Jefferson was actually “licensed” to Preach (on a yearly basis) through the United Brethren Church. We have some documentation that he was a “Circuit Rider” Preacher here in Western Nebraska (Sheridan County – Near Hay Springs, Nebraska.) He was also in South Dakota (farming and preaching or preaching and farming) before the family moved to York, Nebraska.

Thomas or “Jerry” and Mary settled into life in York County, Nebraska. By the 1910 United States Federal Census, their household had grown smaller with only five children residing with them. Their two oldest daughters, Lena and Ethel, were school teachers, and the three sons were working with their father on the farm. By the time the 1920 United States Federal Census was enumerated the family consisted of Thomas, Mary, Dara, Ewart, and a family friend by the name of Anthony Rivera. In the 1930 census Thomas and Mary had a completely “empty nest.” Undoubtedly there were children and grandchildren near by.

LIFE ON THE GREAT PLAINS IS DIFFICULT

The 1920’s and 1930’s were hard years in America and folks living in the Great Plains experienced more than their share of those difficulties. On the website for Wessel’s Living History Farm, York County, Nebraska there is an article entitled “Who Lived in York County in the 1930’s?” This excerpt gives a bit of insight into how the Mohler family may have endured very tough times.

 The Great Plains region has always been known for unpredictable weather and natural disasters – tornadoes, hail storms, blizzards, floods, drought, summer heat and winter cold. Farming on the Great Plains has always been a battle against the weather. But the weather during the 1930s was far beyond the natural cycle of seasons. The weather during the Dust Bowl days set records that still stand in Nebraska history and still stand out in farmers’ memories.

Farms in the 1930s were diversified, growing a variety of crops in the fields, vegetables in the garden and fruit in the orchard. Small farms usually raised chickens, eggs, hogs, and cattle, as well as keeping horses and mules for work, and sometimes sheep for wool and meat. Some farmers kept bees and harvested the honey. Women baked their own bread.

During the Depression, this self-sufficiency carried over into their social life. One-dish suppers and church potlucks were important ways to have fun and share food. On radio and in women’s magazines, home economists taught women how to stretch their food budget with casseroles and meals like creamed chipped beef on toast or waffles. Chili, macaroni and cheese, soups, and creamed chicken on biscuits were popular meals.

The Apetz brothers hunted rabbits to put a more meat on the dinner table. Delbert Apetz says, “We had a brooder house [for chickens]. My uncle and dad, they’d go out rabbit hunting (now this is in the winter time). Be rabbits hanging there, dressed all the way through that and any time you wanted something to eat you’d cut the string on the rabbit and bring it in the house, fry it or cook it and make soup or whatever you want. We ate a lotta, lotta rabbits. But that’s what we had to eat.” Still, it was a constant work to put food on the table, and sometimes the food was covered with dust when the wind blew dust through the cracks in the house.

 Thomas Mohler lived out his days in York County, Nebraska. He and Mary moved there with six children between 1891 and 1896 where their family grew, and not only endured, but thrived during some of Nebraska’s darkest days of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Like other courageous pioneers of those days, they exhibited strength and fortitude when they moved into new territories to face the uncertainties of Mother Nature. From this vantage point in year 2011, they appear to have been truly remarkable folk.

Thomas Jefferson Mohler died December 28, 1937 in York County, Nebraska and was buried in the Greenwood Cemetery. He was survived by his wife of sixty-one years – Mary Emma Bowton Mohler.

thomas-mary-mohler-tombstone

Sources

Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, US: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.

Ancestry.com. 1880 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2005.

Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2004.

Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2006.

Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.

Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census, [database online] Provo, UT, USA: MyFamily.com, Inc., 2002.

“Historical Sketch of Ashland County,” http://ashlandcounty.org

Fulton County, marriage record, Marriage Record Book, vol. E, p. 35, no.17.

Thomas Mohler death certificate no. H12847, State of Nebraska, Department of Health, Lincoln, Nebraska.

“Who Lived in York County in 1930?” Wessel’s Living History Farm, York County, Nebraska, http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30’s/life_28.html

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, “Illinois in the American Civil War,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_in_the_American_Civil_War.

Written by Lucy Ann Nance Croft, 2011.

Thomas Jefferson Mohler Pedigree Chart (click link) thomas-jefferson-mohler-pedigree-chart-scan0001

Thomas Jefferson Mohler Family Group Sheet (click link) thomas-jefferson-mohler-fgs-document

Ethel Mae Mohler Croft

Ethel Mae Mohler Croft
Ethel Mae Mohler Croft

Ethel Mae Mohler began what would be a very long life in Orion Township, Illinois on August 10, 1891. Her parents were Thomas Jefferson and Mary Bowton Mohler and she was their sixth child. They were one farming family among many in this part of Illinois. Three more children were born in this family before they left Illinois and moved to Nebraska in the late 1890’s. I cannot imagine the ordeal of moving a family of eleven people.

When the 1900 United States Federal Census was taken they were living in York, York County, Nebraska. T.J. Mohler is recorded along with his wife, Mary and their children Charles, Lena, Ethel, Darrel, David, and Ewort. Thomas and Mary had another son, William, born in 1885 in Illinois, but he was not residing with them. The two older children, Flora and Ellsworth, were no longer living with the family. Information from the census shows that the family is living in a home which they owned and was not on a farm. The enumerator’s handwriting is difficult to read but it appears that Thomas is working as a carpenter.

Unfortunately we have no diaries or recorded family stories to help us better understand Ethel’s youth. Thanks to the U.S. census records we do get a glimpse of her family’s life. The 1910 census shows that Thomas was farming and his younger sons were helping him on the family farm. Ethel and her sister, Lena, were teaching school. With seven mouths to feed and the same number of bodies to clothe, undoubtedly the days were long and arduous for all members of the Mohler family.

A young man named Oscar Croft lived in nearby Clay County, Nebraska. Though we do not know where or how, he and Ethel met sometime in the 1908 or 1909. Evidently they were attracted to each other and courted for a time. On October 5, 1910 they married in York County, Nebraska.

It is likely that after their marriage Oscar and Ethel lived on or near his father’s family farm land in Clay County. Since Ethel’s father was also a farmer she was familiar with the lifestyle. While still living in Fairfield, Clay County, Nebraska they became parents when their first child, Lloyd Ollie, was born February 9, 1913.

Evidently Oscar made the decision to leave farming because on the 1920 United States Federal Census, he, Ethel, Lloyd, and Keith are living in Hastings, Adams County, Nebraska. It may have been the family rift that caused him to leave the farm. However, he may have felt he was not cut out for the farming life. Nevertheless, the census recorded his occupation as automobile salesman. Later that year they had their second son, Keith Lyle, born November 15, 1920.

Sometime in 1929 Oscar and Ethel opted to leave Nebraska. Family sources indicate that during the latter part of the 1920’s the large Croft family began to disperse with each family group moving in different directions. Some traveled northwest, others east, some to the southwest, and a few to Kansas. It is surmised that the reason for the dispersion was the combination of the terrible drought and the historical United States depression. We know that Nebraska was one of the states that felt the brunt of the Dust Bowl that occurred in the early 1930’s, so it is entirely possible the Crofts were feeling the early effects of it in their area. If that was the case, we can understand their need to seek “greener pastures.”

OSCAR, ETHEL AND SONS MOVE TO TEXAS

Oscar and Ethel moved to San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas in 1929. We do not know what drew them to this part of the country, but perhaps it was the promise of better employment opportunities and living conditions. Oscar, Ethel, Lloyd, and Keith are recorded on the 1930 United States Federal Census and are residing at 1625 Broadway. This residence must have been a rooming house because five other individuals are recorded at this same address. Ownership of the house is not indicated. The census also gives the information that Oscar’s occupation is District Representative in the automobile industry.

1937 was an important year for Oscar and Ethel Croft. They embarked on a new venture with their son Lloyd when together they founded the Croft Trailer Company at 1423 North Flores Street in San Antonio. Later they developed a trailer rental business and became a part of the Nationwide Trailer rental chain. Oscar’s brother and sister-in-law, George and Lena Croft, lived in Kansas City, Missouri and founded a branch Croft Trailer Company there, too. The company was quite successful and the San Antonio branch was in business for over 70 years.

Ethel Mae Mohler Croft
Ethel Mae Mohler Croft

Family members recall that Ethel was involved in the Croft Trailer Company from its very beginnings, working right along with her husband and son. Her role was assisting in the business office. She was quite serious-minded, and it is likely she ran a “tight ship.” At some point, she and Oscar moved next door to the business, so more that ever, she was on the job 24/7.

When Ethel became a grandmother, they called her “Grandmother.” However, her first great grandchild called her “Gee Gee” and that stuck for the rest of her days.

In her autobiography, Lucy Ann Nance Croft shares her memories of “Gee Gee.”

 In looking back on the people who have gained my deepest respect, I would put Grandmother Croft at the top of the list. Because she lived in San Antonio, L.K. was able to spend a great deal of time with her as a child and they developed a close relationship. Consequently, it mattered a lot to Grandmother who he married. Fortunately for me, she let me know from the beginning that she approved of his choice.

When L.K. and I married, Grandmother had been widowed for a number of years (Oscar Cameron Croft, 1887–1952), and I realized right away that she was a fearlessly independent woman. Perhaps it was just her nature, but I believe it had a lot to do with the fact that she had worked at the Croft Trailer Company handling properties, investing her money, and planning her life in all respects. Father and Mother watched out for her and included her in their life as much as possible, but Grandmother had a mind of her own. She died on June 30, 1989, in San Antonio, Texas. She was ninety-seven years old and still lived alone.

Ethel Croft was a person of deep Christian faith. She was an active member of the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church in San Antonio. Because she had a commitment to its work and worship, the church played a major role in her life. Some of her lasting friendships were with people she met there and with whom she served over the years. She exhibited her spirituality in numerous ways. Though a frugal person, she was also generous in her giving, to both the church and to individuals who needed her assistance or encouragement. She was faithful in the reading and study of her Bible and made its truths a part of her daily thinking and living.

Though conservative in dress and demeanor, Grandmother was an attractive woman and took pride in her appearance. Perhaps her good health and longevity could be attributed to her good genes, but she knew the importance of staying fit and healthy by eating well and exercising. Even in her later years, she would walk in the neighborhood—sometimes to the beauty salon to have her hair done.

Gee Gee with Gertrude, Cynthia and Mildred Croft
Gee Gee with Gertrude, Cynthia and Mildred Croft

When the family got together for dinner or a celebration of some kind, Grandmother, or “Gee Gee” (the name given to her by her great-grandchildren), really enjoyed herself. She was reserved and quiet, but she listened intently to the talk going on around her. It pleased me that in her later years, if someone engaged her in a conversation she responded very enthusiastically. It is wonderful that our children were able to know their great grandmother. That’s not true for many of us. Each of them went to Trinity University in San Antonio and would see her from time to time.

grandmother-gee-gee-croft

One thing that concerns me as I grow older is staying mentally alert. Gee Gee was role models to all of us. We were constantly amazed at her sharpness and continued interest in the world around her. When we would think of the changes she had experienced in her lifetime, it astounded us that she could cope so well. L.K. would phone her each week and she would remember things he had told her the week before, such as our plans for a trip, our recent activities, or an item of news about our children. Her interest and curiosity were admirable and impressive. L.K. would often compliment her on her abilities and her longevity. She surprised us when she said that living a long time was not something we should be impressed by. She felt that she was no longer contributing to the world and was a worry to those who loved her. As I reflect on that, perhaps in some respects that may have been true. However, even up to her last days, we respected her wisdom, her caring manner, her encouragement, and her constant support and love for us and our family. In those ways, she was still giving of herself.

Ethel Mae Mohler Croft died on June 30, 1989 in San Antonio, Texas and was buried at Mission Burial Park South next to her husband, Oscar Cameron Croft.

croft-oscar-ethel-127666638_1397018218

 Sources

Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census, [database online]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2004.

Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census, [database online]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network. Inc., 2006.

Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census, [database online]. Provo UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010.

Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census, [database online]. Provo UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009.

Clay County, marriage record, Clay County Clerk’s Office, Fairfield, Nebraska.

Croft, Lucy Ann Nance, Looking Back: Reflections On My Life, 2007.

Ethel Mae Mohler birth record, State of Nebraska, Department of Health, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Ethel M. Croft death certificate no. 060184, Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Austin, Texas.

Written by Lucy Ann Nance Croft, 2011.

Ethel Mae Mohler Pedigree Chart (click link)scan0004